King David was punished. After his affair with Bat-Sheva, and carefully arranging the death of her husband, the prophet Nathan told him an allegory about a man who stole a sheep despite having plenty of his own. David realized it was an allegory and exclaimed, "Ben-mavet hu!" meaning "He's a capital criminal." He then asked who this criminal was, and Nathan explained that he, David, was the criminal.
If you look in Dvarim (I forget the name in English, but it's the fifth book of the Torah), you find that the punishment for the theft of a sheep is that the thief must pay back four sheep. For causing the death of Uriah the Hittite, Bat-Sheva's husband, G-d took from David four sons, the child he conceived with Bat-Sheva; Amnon, killed by his other son Absalom after Amnon raped Tamar, his half sister and Absalom's full sister; Absalom, when Yoav killed him after Absalom attempted to seize David's throne; and Adoniyah, killed after he tried to steal the throne from Solomon.
Also, as he had too much blood on his hands from the conquest of the Philistines, he was denied the honor of building G-d's Temple in Jerusalem. That honor was left to his son, Solomon.
Most of that punishment was meted out to other family members, who were nasty pieces of work in their own right, not to David himself.
Yes, but the losses were horribly painful to David as well. He wept and fasted to repent in the hopes G-d would not kill the child, and famously said, "My son, Absalom! My son, my son, Absalom! Would God I had died instead of thee, Absalom, my son, my son!" That's the most dramatic one, but he was pretty upset over the death of Amnon and Adoniyah as well.
There is a gaping hole in Bayle's argument and it goes like this: Comprehensible knowledge is prepositional. Knowledge of why God favors David would take the form of knowing "that God favors David because of x". If such prepositional knowledge as "that God favors David because of x" is impossible because one cannot know the mind of God, then such prepositional knowledge as "that God favors David" is similarly impossible.
I agree with Bayle's conclusion, but his argument is incohesive.
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